Santarita said a similar concept can also be found in other

Asian countries, citing the Philippines’ compadrazgo and Indonesia’s bapakism as examples.

Compadrazgo, a Spanish word that literally translates to “co-fatherhood”, is based

on a kinship ritual that is formed after a child gets baptized into the Roman Catholic faith.

For the predominantly Catholic and close-knit Philippine society, t

he godfather (known as the padrino) is part of one’s extended family and is expected to he

lp and protect his godchild. The godchild is expected to respect and be loyal to the padrino.

Bapakism is derived from the Indonesian word for “father”. When us

ed in Indonesian business, bapakism demands great respect and obedience to one’s su

perior. The manager in his role as the company’s bapak is expected to look after and care for his employees.

Although Asian values are steeped in an ancient culture and tradition, it was only in t

he 1990s that this concept drew global attention. This was partly due to Asian leaders like the la

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